The Protevangelium of James (2nd Century), the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew (6th Century) and the Nativity of Mary (9th Century) form the so-called “Nativity of Mary” narratives. They relate the birth and early life of Mary, her marriage with Joseph, her pregnancy and the virginal birth
of Jesus with the visit of the midwives. Later incorporated into the Golden Legend and preaching manuals, these narratives exerted considerable influence upon medieval art and literature, especially nourishing Marian cult.
The Iscal 2016 provides a precious opportunity to enhance your knowledge on the transmission paths and mechanisms behind the reception of one of the most widespread apocryphal motifs in medieval art and literature. Medieval historians and specialists in medieval art history will conduct the different sessions, allowing students to appreciate the complexity and the richness of the reception of apocryphal narratives in the Middle Ages.
The Latin New Testament
A Guide to its Early History, Texts, and Manuscripts
H. A. G. Houghton
- The first English-language book dealing with the whole of the Latin New Testament
- Offers a comprehensive introduction to the history and text of this fundamental work of Western culture
- Provides a new account of the history of the biblical text for more than a millennium and a user’s guide to the principal editions and resources for further study
- Includes illustrations of key manuscripts as well as links to online resources
- This is an indispensable guide for scholars and students of the text of the New Testament, and provides an orientation for historians, theologians, medievalists, linguists, and all those interested in the manuscript heritage of Christianity in Europe.
Latin is the language in which the New Testament was copied, read, and studied for over a millennium. The remains of the initial ‘Old Latin’ version preserve important testimony for early forms of text and the way in which the Bible was understood by the first translators. Successive revisions resulted in a standard version subsequently known as the Vulgate which, along with the creation of influential commentaries by scholars such as Jerome and Augustine, shaped theology and exegesis for many centuries. Latin gospel books and other New Testament manuscripts illustrate the continuous tradition of Christian book culture, from the late antique codices of Roman North Africa and Italy to the glorious creations of Northumbrian scriptoria, the pandects of the Carolingian era, eleventh-century Giant Bibles, and the Paris Bibles associated with the rise of the university.
In The Latin New Testament, H.A.G. Houghton provides a comprehensive introduction to the history and development of the Latin New Testament. Drawing on major editions and recent advances in scholarship, he offers a new synthesis which brings together evidence from Christian authors and biblical manuscripts from earliest times to the late Middle Ages. All manuscripts identified as containing Old Latin evidence for the New Testament are described in a catalogue, along with those featured in the two principal modern editions of the Vulgate. A user’s guide is provided for these editions and the other key scholarly tools for studying the Latin New Testament.
The Latin New Testament can be previewed in several places on Google Books:
Google also offers the following word cloud for the book:
The St Andrews Symposium for Biblical and Early Christian Studies is pleased to announce its conference for the summer of 2016: Son of God: Divine Sonship in Jewish and Christian Antiquity. The conference will be held 6-8 June 2016 at the University of St Andrews, Scotland. The conference is organized as an exploration of diverse aspects of divine sonship within the following corpora: Hebrew Bible, Septuagint, Dead Sea Scrolls, Pseudepigrapha, New Testament, Rabbinic Judaism, and early Christianity. In June 2016, biblical scholars and theologians from around the world will gather to consider Divine Sonship, engaging with ancient texts to bring history, exegesis, and theology into conversation. The School of Divinity at the University of St Andrews is delighted to invite you to join the conversation.
Invited speakers at this conference will be: Menahem Kister (Hebrew University); Reinhard Kratz (Göttingen); Jan Joosten (University of Oxford); Philip Alexander (University of Manchester); George Brooke (University of Manchester); Richard Bauckham (University of Cambridge); Michael Peppard (Fordham University); Matthew Novenson (University of Edinburgh); N.T. Wright (University of St Andrews); William Tooman (University of St Andrews); Madhavi Nevader (University of St Andrews); David Moffitt (University of St Andrews)
Call for Papers is now open. We invite proposals (from postgraduates and faculty) for short papers that engage notions of Son of God/Divine Sonship in the following areas:
- Ancient Israelite religion
- Angelology and heavenly mediators
- Kingship and royal ideologies
- Political ideologies in the Second Temple period
- Corporate sonship and the people of God
- Christian origins/Christology
- Son of God and ancient scriptural exegesis/interpretation
- Early mystical traditions
- Other related topics
Abstracts of ca. 250 words should be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org (Paul Sloan) by 15 February 2016, midnight GMT, for consideration. See http://standrewssymposium.blogspot.co.uk/ for more information and occasional updates.
Registration for the symposium will open 1 December 2015 and close 1 May 2016. Registration will be available at that time here: https://onlineshop.st-andrews.ac.uk/. Early-bird registration fee of £50 will be available until 1 March 2016 (£75 thereafter). Conference poster attached.
Kai Akagi (PhD Candidate, University of St Andrews)
Paul Sloan (PhD Candidate, University of St Andrews)
Garrick Allen (Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Wuppertal)
“Europe’s future is digital”. This was the headline of a speech given at the Hannover exhibition in April 2015 by Günther Oettinger, EU-Commissioner for Digital Economy and Society. While businesses and industries have already made major advances in digital ecosystems, the digital transformation of texts stretching over a period of more than two millennia is far from complete. On the one hand, mass digitisation leads to an „information overload“ of digitally available data; on the other, the “information poverty” embodied by the loss of books and the fragmentary state of ancient texts form an incomplete and biased view of our past. In a digital ecosystem, this coexistence of data overload and poverty adds considerable complexity to scholarly research.
With this special issue on Computer-Aided Processing of Intertextuality in Ancient Languages, the HiSoMA lab in Lyon, France, and the Göttingen Centre for Digital Humanities Germany, aim to create a collection of papers that discuss the state-of-the-art on intertextuality, linguistic preprocessing and the preservation of scholarly research results specifically applied to corpora in ancient languages and for which few online resources exist (Ancient Greek, Latin, Hebrew, Syriac, Coptic, Arabic, Ethiopic, etc.).
Relevant topics include:
- Methods for the detection of intertexts and text reuse, manual (e.g. crowd-sourcing) or automatic (e.g. algorithms);
- Infrastructure for the preservation of digital texts and quotations between different text passages;
- Linguistic preprocessing and data normalisation, such as lemmatisation of historical languages, root stemming, normalisation of variants, etc.;
- Visualisation of intertextuality and text reuse;
- Creation of, and research on, stemmata.
The special issue will be published by the Journal on Data Mining and Digital Humanities (http://jdmdh.episciences.org/), an online open access journal that will release the issue shortly after its submission in order to elicit feedback from readers while concurrently supervising the standard peer review process.
Interested authors are asked to:
1) send a title, an author list and a one page (or shorter) abstract specifying the type of contribution (full paper or project presentation) to
Laurence Mellerin: laurence.mellerin(at)mom(dot)fr AND
Marco Büchler: mbuechler(at)gcdh(dot)de
by October 31st.
2) send a paper (long: up to 40 pages OR short: 2 to 4 pages illustrating the scope and research of the project), following the guidelines of JDMDH, which can be found at http://jdmdh.episciences.org/page/submissions
by January 31st 2016.
For further questions, do not hesitate to contact Laurence and Marco.
Arabica sunt, non leguntur…
The Bible in Arabic: The Evidence of the Manuscripts
Conference in Leuven – 22-24 April 2015
Org. Claire Clivaz (Lausanne), Herman Teule (Nijmegen),
Sara Schulthess (Lausanne) and Joseph Verheyden (Leuven)
University of Leuven, Faculty of Theology and Religious Studies,
St-Michielsstraat 4/3101, Romerozaal (02.10)
Day 1 – 22 April 2015
- 13h00-13h15 Welcome / Introduction
- 13h15-14h30 Herman Teule (Radboud University Nijmegen)
Muslim Terminology in the Arabic Translations of the Bible
- 14h30-15h45 Ute Pietruschka (Universität Halle)
Strategies of Transformation of Biblical Material in Muslim Collections of Sayings
- 15h45-16h00 Break
- 16h-17h15 David Thomas (University of Birmingham)
Making Sense of the Bible in Early Muslim Kalam
- 17h15-18h30 Arik Sadan (University of Tel Aviv / Hebrew University of Jerusalem / Ben-Gurion University of the Negev)
Differences and Similarities between Christian and Karaite Translations of the Bible into Arabic: the Case of the Book of Job
- 18h30-18h50 Plenary discussion
- 19h30 Dinner
Day 2 – 23 avril 2015
- 8h45-10h Camilla Adang (University of Tel Aviv)
The Quotations from the Books of Exodus and Leviticus in the Polemic against the Pentateuch by ‘Ala’ al-Din al-Baji (d. 714/1314)
- 10h-11h15 Sabine Schmidtke (IAS, Princeton)
Biblical Materials in Quṭb al-Dīn al-Rāwandī’s K. al-Khawārij wa-l-jawāriḥ
- 11h15-11h30 Break
- 11h30-12h45 Ronny Vollandt (FU Berlin)
MS Paris, BNF, Ar. 1 and Its Place in the Study of the Arabic Bible
- 14h30-15h45 Juan Pedro Monferrer Sala (Universidad de Córdoba)
Bible translations in Andalus
- 15h45-17h Samir Arbache (Université de Lille)
Lexical Features of a Arabic Version of the Gospels
- 17h-17h15 Break
- 17h15-17h45 Plenary discussion
- 19h15 Dinner
Day 3 – 24 avril 2015
- 8h30-9h45 Sara Schulthess (Université de Lausanne)
An Arabic Manuscript of Pauline Letters: Vaticanus Arabicus 13
- 9h45-11h Elie Dannaoui (Université de Balamand)
Digital Corpus of Arabic Gospel Lectionary: A Work in Progress
- 11h-11h15 Break
- 11h15-12h30 Timothy B. Sailors
Tatian’s Diatessaron as ‘The Gospel’: The Manuscripts and Translation of the Arabic Gospel Harmony and the Gospels in Arabic and Their Relation to the Second-Century Text
- 12h30-13h Plenary discussion / Conclusion
For any information, please contact: email@example.com
From the 8th and 9th centuries CE, the communities living in the Islamic rule began to translate their sacred texts, the Hebrew Bible, the New Testament and the Samaritan Pentateuch, into Arabic. Various Christian groups – such as Melkites, Copts and Syriacs –, Jews or Samaritans translated from their respective languages (Greek, Syriac, Coptic, Hebrew, etc.) parts of the Bible, which have survived in a large number of manuscripts, widespread in the Middle East and around the world. These manuscripts are for great importance for the history of these communities and of their texts, as well as of their relations to the Islamic world. But in his last book, Sydney Griffith deplores: “The study of the Bible in Arabic is in its infancy. There are hundreds of extant manuscripts containing portions of the Bible in Arabic translations produced by Jews and Christians in early Islamic times and well into the Middle Ages. But until now, with some notable exceptions, they have been of little interest to either biblical scholars or even to historians of Judaism, Christianity or Islam.” This is particularly true regarding to the Arabic manuscripts of the New Testament, who were too often considered as useless by New Testament scholars. Since the reference book of Georg Graf Geschichte der christlichen arabischen Literatur in 1944, the publications are very few. This lack of interest also applies to the Hebrew Bible despite the importance of the Arabic translations for the history of the text. For any text from any tradition, we are missing the basic research tools, from critical editions to the necessary inventories of manuscripts.However, a regain of interest can be noticed since the start of the 21st century, with an increasing number of new publications in recent years. We can mention a large study on the Arabic manuscripts of the Gospels and some editions of manuscripts of the Gospels, a new book of Sydney Griffith on the Arabic Bible, or a study on the versions of the Pentateuch in print. If this is very encouraging, we can still deplore that some subjects are less covered than others. In the case of the New Testament, researchers focus the Gospels and we know very little about the other books in Arabic. Furthermore, there are for example very little interactions between research on the New Testament and research on the Hebrew Bible, when a global approach would also be necessary. The first objective is the exchange between specialists of the field on the current research and the highlighting the different ongoing projects. We are glad to have representatives of many projects as the international project Biblia Arabica between Tel Aviv University and Freie Universität Berlin. The project has the aim to study and edit manuscripts and also “to investigate translation as an act and a process, and the manner in which translators from different faiths influenced each other in an inter-religious and inter-cultural context.” This global approach will be complete by smaller research project, as the project The Arabic Manuscripts of the Letters of Paul of Tarsus (University of Lausanne, in collaboration with the Institute of Eastern Christian Studies Nijmegen), which focus on the Pauline letters and try to integrate the digital component to the reflection. This is also the case of the Digital Corpus of Arabic Gospel Lectionary of the University of Balamand, which builds an online database for the Gospels in Arabic. The meeting between the actors in the current research will allow to map the need and emergencies for the research: comprehensive bibliographies; critical editions; manuscripts inventories, etc. In the case of the Arabic Bible, very basic tools are missing and cooperation between researchers and projects is necessary to fill the gap.
The meeting has two main lines: the study of particular manuscripts and their texts; the study of the context of the translations. The first focus on particular manuscripts will be an interesting opportunity to discuss notably the question of the standards in the research, notably for the edition, regarding for example Middle Arabic and Judeo-Arabic, but also relating to the new technologies and the new ways to do research. The second focus on the translations as a result of evolutions and interactions of the Christian, Jewish and Muslims milieus will illustrate the necessity of dialog between disciplines for this multifaceted object. Source : http://wp.unil.ch/nt-arabe/colloque-2015/
The Bible in the Iberian World: Fundaments of a Religious Melting Pot
Córdoba (España) : 12-15 juillet
Cordoba, the next city to host the Annual Meeting of the European Association of Biblical Studies, represents par excellence the history of religious co-existence. Over the centuries, the city, similarly to what happened in the broader Iberian world, was a space where inter-religious exchanges between Christians, Muslims, and Jews were possible. These people, albeit the natural religious differences, shared the same space, and similar imageries and expectations. Therefore, this year, this group wants to explore some of the different perspectives regarding religious encounters and moments/episodes of confrontation within the Iberian World. We are particularly interested in papers that explore the manuscript transmission of religious ideas and beliefs and its literary tradition, and the material and intellectual legacy of the different religious groups that led to determining Iberian politics and historical events.
Although we are open to all papers regarding religion in the Iberian World, we would particularly invite you to submit to the following units:
Iberian Religious Manuscripts: production, reception, and transmission
The production of manuscripts of religious nature is a very important characteristic of Christian, Muslim and Jews tradition, playing a decisive role in the definition of each groups’ canon. This session aims to discuss the canonical and heterodox facets of the religious literature produced within the Iberian world, and to analyze, the circulation and reception in different environments of the produced manuscripts. Papers exploring the production, reception, and transmission of Christian, Muslim, and Jewish religious texts (bibles, religious literature, Kabbalah, liturgy books, religious instructions, hagiography, iconography, exegesis, etc.) within the Iberian world are welcomed.
Cultural and Intellectual legacy of Iberian Religious Minorities
This session focuses on the “legacies” of religious minorities found in the Iberian Peninsula, and how they transformed themselves, and were transformed, when later dispersed into the Mediterranean and the Atlantic during Iberian early modern Expansion. Papers should explore the cultural and intellectual production resulting from interreligious contacts and found still today in, for example, archaeology, literature, philosophy, medicine, philology, music, and popular culture. Furthermore, we welcome papers underlining the acculturation processes between Christian, Muslim (mozarabes, mudéjar and moriscos), and Jewish (conversos and New Christians).
The Bible as the Explanation Behind Iberian Imperialism and Expansion
This is a joint session with SBL’s groups Bible and its Influence: History and Impact and Bible and Empire. As the title suggests, our aim is to analyze the reasoning based on biblical texts and the pope’s authority used by Portuguese and Spanish to justify their overseas enterprise, and in particular, their colonization of new territories. In the Cordoba meeting, we welcome papers that explore the biblical arguments used by both parties (crusade, Treaty of Tordesillas and mare clausum, evangelization and reaching of a universal religion that would allow the end of the world to take place, etc.) to justify their overseas presence, conquest, and colonization.
Source : EABS
Gregory Crane: June 1914 and Philology for the 21st Century
On the sidelines of the workshop about text-reuse (see http://biblindex.hypotheses.org/1686) held from June 2 to 4,
Gregory Crane, head of the Perseus Project at Tufts University, holder of The Humboldt Chair of Digital Humanities at the University of Leipzig which launched the Open Philology Project, gave a public lecture on Tuesday, 3rd June 2014 at the Maison de l’Orient et de la Méditerranée in Lyon.
We are approaching the one hundred year anniversary of the First World War. Philology was never more prestigious than it was a century ago but what what, if anything, did it do to counteract the threads of nationalism that led to the disasters of the twentieth century? Far as Europe has come a hundred years later, the vast majority of those who engage with historical languages such as Greek and Latin are secondary school students – at least 3 million of them across Europe – who experience these languages in their national languages and in isolation from their counterparts across linguistic, if not national, boundaries. We are, however, now poised to develop a new philology, one optimized for a global society, with editions designed to serve many linguistic and cultural communities. Digital technologies provide enabling mechanisms for this new philology but a global philology requires as well a new conception of the relationship between professionalized scholarship and human society, both within Europe and beyond. We have many technological opportunities but the major task before us to assess what sort of scholarly community we wish to support. We have a chance to develop a global republic of letters, one that fosters a true dialogue across civilizations but we must make decisions in the present if we are to pursue changes in the future. This talk goes over possibilities and challenges involved.
“Scriptural interpretation was an important form of scholarship for Christians in late antiquity. For no one does this claim ring more true than Origen of Alexandria (185-254), one of the most prolific scholars of Scripture in early Christianity. This book examines his approach to the Bible through a biographical lens: the focus is on his account of the scriptural interpreter, the animating centre of the exegetical enterprise. In pursuing this largely neglected line of inquiry, Peter W. Martens discloses the contours of Origen’s sweeping vision of scriptural exegesis as a way of life. For Origen, ideal interpreters were far more than philologists steeped in the skills conveyed by Greco-Roman education. Their profile also included a commitment to Christianity from which they gathered a spectrum of loyalties, guidelines, dispositions, relationships and doctrines that tangibly shaped how they practiced and thought about their biblical scholarship. The study explores the many ways in which Origen thought ideal scriptural interpreters (himself included) embarked upon a way of life, indeed a way of salvation, culminating in the everlasting contemplation of God. This new and integrative thesis takes seriously how the discipline of scriptural interpretation was envisioned by one of its pioneering and most influential practitioners.”
Click here for a discussion with Peter W. Martens on his book
Part one: Digitized manuscripts
The Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library. The Digitization Project of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Pnina Shor)
Dead Sea Scrolls inside Digital Humanities. A Sample (David Hamidović)
The Electronic Scriptorium: Markup for New Testament Manuscripts (Hugh Houghton)
Digital Arabic Gospels Corpus (Elie Dannaoui)
The Role of the Internet in New Testament Textual Criticism: The Example of the Arabic Manuscripts of the New Testament (Sara Schulthess)
The Falasha Memories Project. Digitalization of the Manuscript BNF, Ethiopien d’Abbadie 107 (Charlotte Touati)
Part two: Digital academic research and publishing
The Seventy and Their 21st-Century Heirs. The Prospects for Digital Septuagint Research (Juan Garcés)
Digital Approaches to the Study of Ancient Monotheism (Ory Amitay)
Internet Networks and Academic Research: The Example of the New Testament Textual Criticism (Claire Clivaz)
New Ways of Searching with Biblindex, the Online Index of Biblical Quotations in Early Christian Literature (Laurence Mellerin)
Aspects of Polysemy in Biblical Greek. A Preliminary Study for a New Lexicographical Resource (Romina Vergari)
Publishing Digitally at the University Press? A Reader’s Perspective (Andrew Gregory)
Does Biblical Studies Deserve to Be an Open Source Discipline? (Russell Hobson)
The Czech Patristic Society and the Centre for Patristic, Medieval and Renaissance Texts, Palacký University Olomouc, Czech Republic, are organizing an international colloquium on Clement of Alexandria, focused on Clement´s Biblical Exegesis.
The colloquium will take place in Prague/Olomouc, Czech Republic (will be specified soon), on May 29-31, 2014.
Working languages will be English, French, German and Italian.
Conference home‐page: www.centrum-texty.upol.cz/patristickaspolecnost/clement2014.htm
The home‐page will be updated continuously.
TOPIC AND AIM OF THE CONFERENCE
Four main lectures will introduce the conference:
· Alain Le Boulluec: L’interprétation de la Bible et le genre symbolique selon Clément
· Annewies van den Hoek: Relationship between OT and NT in Clement
· Judith Kovacs: Clement´s interpretation of Paul´s letters.
· Marco Rizzi: Patterns of Biblical exegesis in Clement
The programme has five main themes:
- Theoretic basis of the interpretation of Scripture; comparison between Clement and Philo; Clement and Origen; relations between rational demonstration and use of the Bible in search of the truth;
- relation between OT and NT in Clement;
- Clement and OT (Clement´s Greek Bible; interpretation of individual books of OT);
- Clement and NT (Clement´s text of NT; interpretation of individual books of NT);
- different ways of use of Scripture in individual Clement´s works.
You are cordially invited to submit a proposal for a presentation (of approximately 30 minutes) or short communication (15 minutes). In order to maintain the thematic coherence of the conference it would be appreciated if suggested themes for contributions related to the above mentioned themes.
The dead-line for submissions is January 20, 2014.
The submission should include a title and a summary of your presentation and should be sent to the following e-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org. We will answer your suggestions continuously and not later than by February 15, 2014.
Kindly extend this invitation to other scholars who might be interested to participate.
Doctoral students working on a topic relevant to the theme of the colloquium are also welcome.
The normal conference fee will be 200 Euro. This fee will cover participation in all sessions of the conference, all meals (except breakfast), welcome reception, social programme and other events connected to the conference.
The organisers are constantly applying for more funding for the conference. We are almost sure that this will enable us to reduce the fee at least for students and younger scholars, and hopefully also the general fee. We will provide more information about this at the home‐page.
COLLOQUIUM ORGANIZERS AND LOCATION
The Centre for Patristic, Medieval and Renaissance Texts is a research centre attached to St. Cyril and Methodius Faculty of Theology, Palacký University Olomouc. You may learn about the Centre, its projects, activities and publications at the following address:
The Czech Patristic Society is a local branch of the International Association of Patristic Studies (IAPS/AIEP). The President of the Czech Patristic Society is Professor Lenka Karfíková (Prague). You may learn about the society and its activities at the following address:
The conference is organized by Veronika Cernuskova, Jana Platova and Vit Husek.
All communication may be addressed to Vit Husek and sent to
Vit Husek, Th.D.
Centre for Patristic, Medieval and Renaissance Texts
The Dead Sea Scrolls and Pauline Literature
Edited by Jean-Sébastien Rey , Université de Lorraine
Publication Year: 2013
The relationships between Pauline literature and the Dead Sea scrolls have fascinated specialists ever since the latter were first
discovered. Now that all the Qumran scrolls have been published, it is
possible to see more clearly the amplitude and impact of this corpus
on first century Judaism. This book offers some syntheses of the
results obtained in the last decades, and also opens up new
perspectives, by highlighting similarities and indicating possible
relationships between these various writings within Mediterranean
Judaism. In addition, the authors wish to show how certain traditions
spread, evolve and are reconfigured in ancient Judaism as they meet
new religious, cultural and social challenges.
L. Mellerin, H.A.G. Houghton (eds), Biblical Quotations in Patristic Texts, Studia Patristica LIV, vol. 2 (Papers presented at the Sixteenth International Conference on Patristic Studies held in Oxford 2011, M. Vinzent ed.), Leuven-Paris-Walpole, MA 2013.
One of the main interests of Biblindex concerns the « canon » of the Bible and especially the way the Fathers actually used the books, be them canonical or not. In any case one can try to look at John Chrysostom about a book that is meant to be absent by the Antiochian authors: the Revelation of John.
Relied on the biblical index of the Latin translation in Montfaucon’s edition, Ch. Baur’s conclusions, supplemented by those of R. E. Carter, confirmed that the Antiochian canon observed by John Golden Mouth did not include the Revelation. Biblindex datas, made from the work of the CADP, might allow us to balance these conclusions.
Before that, one should consult the Chrysostom’s Scripture Index compiled by R. A. Krupp. Out of the 9 references to Revelation he found, only one is to be taken into account : « The angels, writes the Antiochian while he comments on the « belt of truth » (Eph. 6:14), appear to us girded, for they are soldiers ; once one is girded, one stands firm » ; and the only biblical instance where angels are girded seems to be Rev. 15:6 : οἱ ἄγγελοι… περιεζωσμένοι. The image, however, is too trivial in this case to prove anything.
Let’s turn now to the 11 references to the Revelation given by Biblindex: if we exclude questionable instances, 5 of them are still valid, which may be reduced to 3. The « second death » (ὁ δεύτερος θάνατος, Rev. 2:11 ; 20:6.14 ; 21:8) is not verbatim in the Treatise to Theodore, 11, but the idea is: « One should not fear the Devil, or the pitfalls of Demons, or Gehenna, or death, that of the present time or the other death which is much more terrible » – and much more clearly than in Matth. 10:28. In the homily 49, 3 On John, the mention of Satan as a « snake » and as a « dragon » might refer to Is. 27:1 (δράκοντα ὄφιν, i.e. the Leviathan), but Rev. 12:9 (ὁ δράκων ὁ μέγας, ὁ ὄφις ὁ ἀρχαῖος) is a much better reference. The most important case is at the beginning of the third book Adversus oppugnatores vitae monasticae, where the wide scene of Judgment Day owes much to the « little apocalypse » in Matthew and to Dan. 7:9-10 – that Chrysostom often cites –, but perhaps to some passages of the Revelation as well. In the following table, one will find the references probably coming from other books livres than Revelation (bold), those that might be from Revelation (underlined) and the ambiguous ones (without any formatting):
If we exclude the five ambiguous cases, there still are three disturbing instances: the trumpets in the plural in an apocalyptic context, the angels sent around the world, the armies of angels alongside the judge, all those elements seem to correspond to the Revelation. The book, of course, is not explicitly mentioned, and it is not impossible that Chrysostom had in mind some iconographic representations of angels, of soldiers, of eschatological scenes, or – but this is unlikely – other non-canonical apocalyptic books. Nevertheless, the mere use of popular imagery, to which the Johannine Book of Revelation would contribute, even from some distance, would not be enough to explain the accuracy of certain elements. The book, in any case, should be part not only of the culture of Chrysostom, but also of that of his listeners. So one can wonder to what extent, even though it wasn’t included in the volumes that used to be the current bible books of Antiochians, it circulated anyway.
Although the presence of references does not imply that a book is a canonical one – the Revelation certainly was not, at least at the first degree –, it still shows it was in use in one way or another. If Revelation can really be found by John Chrysostom – the instances above might not give enough evidence of it –, this would mean that in practice the Book of Revelation would have belonged to a second degree of the canon.
 B. de Montfaucon, S. P. N. Joannis Chrysostomi archiespiscopi Constantinopolitani opera omnia quæ exstant, t. 13, Paris, 1738, index locum scripturae sacrae, p. i-lj (at the end of the volume).
 Ch. Baur, « Der Kanon des hl. Joh. Chrysostomus », Theologische Quartalschrift 105, 1924, p. 258-271.
 R. E. Carter, « The Antiochene Biblical Canon 400 A.D. », Orientalia Christiana Periodica 72, 2006, p. 417-431.
 R. A. Krupp, Saint John Chrysostom. A Scripture Index, Lanham – New York – London, 1984.
 Ibid, p. 253.
 Hom. 23 On Eph., 2, PG 62, 166 : Οἱ ἄγγελοι ἡμῖν ἐζωσμένοι φαίνονται, ἅτε στρατιῶται ὄντες. Ἀπὸ τοῦ περιζώσασθαι, τὸ στῆναι γίνεται γενναίως.
 Rev. 4:5 et 14:4 in Comment observer la virginité, 9, ed. J. Dumortier, CUF, Paris, 1955, p. 125 and 127, without any textual contact (as far as φῶς ἀπρόσιτον is concerned, p. 125, Rev. 21:10-11 is much less relevant than 1 Tim. 6:16) ; the book that tastes like honey (Rev. 10:10), PG 55,183.43, is only a parallel to Ez. 3:3, explicitly quoted, and the new skies and the new earth (Is. 65:17) are explicitly quoted in PG 60, 157.24 and 63, 114.18 as well, so that there is no need to refer to Rev. 21:1.
 Οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκεῖ διάϐολον δεῖσαι καὶ δαιμόνων ἐπιϐουλάς, οὐ γεέννης ἀπειλήν, οὐ θάνατον, οὐ τοῦτον τὸν νῦν, οὐ τὸν πολλῷ τούτου χαλεπώτερον ἐκεῖνον : ed. J. Dumortier, SC 117, Paris, 1966, p. 138-139.
 Οὗτος καὶ ὄφις καὶ δράκων ἐστι, PG 59, 326.22.
 John Chrysostom, Adversus oppugnatores vitae monasticae, III, 1, PG 47, 349-350.
Excerpts from the post-refereed, pre-print version of the following article:
Mellerin, L., New Ways of Searching with Biblindex, the online Index of Biblical Quotations in Early Christian Literature, chapter 11, in Claire Clivaz, Andrew Gregory, David Hamidovic (eds.), Digital Humanities in Biblical, Early Jewish and Early Christian Studies, Brill, Leiden 2013, p. 175-192.
Examples of research results which may be obtained with Biblindex.
1. The utility of BIBLINDEX for biblical scholars
1.1. Studying the constitution and history of the canon
Because of the accuracy of its data, BIBLINDEX will make it easier to see
and compare the pre-canonical forms of the Scriptures. Ancient Christianity
did not know a global definitive list of books, and even less a list of
editions or authorized versions. BIBLINDEX can throw light on the spread
of biblical writings in such or such a part of the world to such or such a
period, and thereby highlight the synchronic and diachronic dimensions
of the texts’ transmission.
For instance, the Book of Ruth has always been known as canonical,
but was not very often quoted, and not everywhere. BIBLINDEX shows
that it was used since the third century in Alexandria and Caesarea. The
Antiochene Fathers seem not to refer to it as a canonical work before the
fifth century, when Theodoret of Cyrrhus writes his Commentary on
Ruth. Researchers might have believed that it was excluded from the
canon until four quotations of it were discovered in a work of John
Chrysostom, his Commentary on Matthew, whose authenticity was absolutely
proved. This simple fact is evidence of its inclusion.
Another example shows that using BIBLINDEX may open new research
fields. Why do these Antiochene Fathers so rarely quote the Book of
Ecclesiastes, whereas in Alexandria there are hundreds of references?
The three books attributed to Solomon, Proverbs-Song of Solomon-
Ecclesiastes, were not used very much in this area, but the references to
Ecclesiastes are at a particularly low level.
1.2. Studying biblical Apocrypha
BIBLINDEX has established the following principle: from the moment we
know that a text was considered biblical by a Church Father at a given
time, the statement of its occurrences in BIBLINDEX is relevant. Our compilation
of biblical referencing systems will therefore include all possible
books quoted in a specific language.
It will thus be easier to study the survival and the diffusion of apocryphal
texts, today lost, such as the books of Pseudo-Ezekiel. If we search
for quotations of Ezekiel 37:7 in Origen, Gregory of Nyssa or Epiphanius
of Salamis, we read a phrase, ‘bone with bone and joint to joint’ (ὀστέον πρὸς ὀστέον καὶ ἁπμονία πρὸς ἁπμονίαν.),
which does not entirely match the well-known Hebraic text: ‘and the
bones came together, bone to its bone’. Besides, these quotations more
closely match a text from the first century before the Christian era, found
in Hebrew in the Dead Sea Scrolls and called Pseudo-Ezekiel. In this
way we can demonstrate that Epiphanius, at the end of the fourth century,
still knew this text and that he probably read it in Greek, just as
Gregory of Nyssa did. So there was a Greek translation of it (See Vianès, L., ‘Vers un texte grec du Pseudo-Ézéchiel? La vision des ossements desséchés’,
in L’Antiquité en ses confins. Mélanges offerts à Benoît Gain. Hors série 16 de Recherches
et Travaux (Grenoble: Université Stendhal-Grenoble 3, 2008), 163–175).
More generally, the influences and the geography of the history of
ideas are better known, in qualitative terms – thanks to the text of the
quotations – as well as in quantitative terms – according to the number of
1.3. The textual criticism of the Bible
And finally, when our textual phase is completed, BIBLINDEX will become
a great tool for the textual criticism of the Bible. The comparative
search for the quotations of the Fathers, often rich in variants and unexpected
readings compared with earlier or modern standard texts, can
contribute to the reconstruction of the original text. Indeed, even though
passed on by late witnesses, quotations found in authors older than most
of the preserved biblical manuscripts allow us to go further back into the
history of the biblical texts.
2. The utility of BIBLINDEX for patristics scholars
The data have to be improved and checked and the corpus has to be enlarged,
but some results can already be obtained. The main fact of bringing
together so much data highlights global patterns of which we were
not necessarily aware before this data was collected. In this paper a total
of some 500,000 references, in texts from the first six centuries, are taken
2.1. The most quoted texts
48% of the quotations refer to the Old Testament and 52% to the New
Testament, although there are of course many more verses in the former.
Thus we should not overestimate the percentage of New Testament references
by a specific Father.
In the chart above, the number of references to each section of the Old
Testament has been weighted according to the text length of each section.
We can see very clearly that Torah and Psalms are quoted disproportionately;
prophetic texts are very often referenced, but in relation to
their text length this number of references is not as significant as for the
Psalms. Historical texts are very clearly underquoted.
If we go a step further, we see that the Church Fathers’ three favourite
books are the Psalms, Genesis and the book of Isaiah.
As far as the New Testament is concerned, the Gospels and Pauline Epistles are the most
quoted texts, both absolutely and in relation to their text length.
Matthew’s Gospel is overrepresented, whereas Mark is not very often quoted.
This is due to the actual practices of the Fathers, but also from a selection
bias due to the systematic choice of Matthew in the database in
case of identical synoptic parallels.
A top ten list of the most quoted verses can also be established. After the
integration of Cyril of Alexandria’s works into the corpus, the first verse
of John’s Gospel is the most quoted by far. We can see the predilection
of the Church Fathers for christological verses: equality between God
and his Son and the reality of the incarnation are the main issues debated
with pagan, Jewish or heretical adversaries. These are not surprising
results, but the establishment of such global comparison points is completely
These are not surprising results, but the establishment of such global comparison points is completely new.
2.2. The distortion between the Bible and its patristic reconstruction
Insofar as the text of the patristic quotations will be gradually integrated
into the database, we shall ultimately be able to reconstruct the Bible of a
particular author. One would then be able to compare the Bible of two
authors, or one author’s Bible at different periods of his life.
Studying the use of a specific pericope can also lead to very interesting
results. If we take as an example the opening of John’s Gospel,
which contains the most frequently quoted verse, John 1:1, we have a
sample of more than 6,000 quotations or allusions. Although it is not
exhaustive, we can assume that such a huge corpus may be a representative
sample from the period that we are studying. We can draw a curve
showing the number of references to each verse of this biblical section,
very far from an equal use of each verse. Verses about John (6–8) are far
less quoted than the verses about the Word (whom John identifies with
Jesus): less than 20 references, whereas verse 1 is quoted more than
2.3. Association of verses
As an instrument of textual comparison and hermeneutics, BIBLINDEX
makes visible thematic relationships, similarities in the grouping of references
and echoes between the authors. Without this tool, such comparisons
could only be perceived with difficulty.
For instance: Augustine identifies the blasphemy against the Holy
Spirit in Matthew 12:31 – ‘Therefore I tell you, people will be forgiven
for every sin and blasphemy, but blasphemy against the Spirit will not be
forgiven.’ – with the unforgivable sin of the First Epistle of John 5:16 –
‘If you see your brother or sister committing what is not a mortal sin,
you will ask, and God will give life to such a one […] There is a sin that
is mortal; I do not say that you should pray about that’. Is this an original
idea, or did some Fathers associate these two verses before him? We can
find 160 references to these two verses, but only four works which quote
them together and near from each other: the treatise De Pudicitia by
Tertullian, The Commentaries on John and Matthew written by Origen,
and Ambrose’s treatise De Paenitentia. As a matter of fact, Tertullian
and Ambrose are Augustine’s sources on this precise subject.
2.4. Textual criticism in the patristic field
Last but not least, the biblical references provide information about the
history of the texts which quote them. They give us valuable information
about the textual family or the biblical manuscripts to which the author
had access; about the debates on which he was dependent. They supply
him with quotations he does not always verify or reinterpret. These elements
can be deduced from the shape taken by the quotation (i.e. the
biblical variants of which it gives evidence), or from the interpretation
given. The precise form of the text helps to classify texts.
Biblical references may enable to date a work: thus we find in John’s
first Apocryphal Revelation (Tischendorf, C., ‘Apocalypsis Iohannis Apocrypha’, in Apocalypses apocryphae, C.Tischendorf (Leipzig, 1866, repr. Hildesheim, 1966), XVIII–XIX (introduction), 70–94 (Greek text edition).) biblical groups containing typically heterodox
eschatological views, based on which we can guess it was written in
the Byzantine Middle Ages. Isolated or organized together, these are a
classical criterion to authenticate a work. Similarly, a previously unidentified
allusion to the Letter of Jude helps, for example, to remove the
paternity of a text ascribed by some authors to John Chrysostom who, as
an Antiochene, would not quote this biblical book. The links between
two or several texts, not just as far as their authenticity is concerned but
also their literary or doctrinal influence, come out more clearly; it is
particularly true as regards the ‘jungle’ of the anthologies or chains,
exegetical compilations containing many fragmentary, badly attributed
or deformed texts. Duplicates will be spotted by establishing that a particular
fragment comes from a work transmitted and known in another